Foredunes are the older and higher dunes that that run parallel to the shore just inland of the embryo dunes. The foredunes are also referred to as yellow dunes because of the high proportion (c. 20%) of visible sand. The foredunes are floristically species-poor, with large tussocks of marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) locally dominant and other early colonising plants such as dewberry (Rubus caesius) playing a stabilising role. Sea holly (Eryngium maritimum) and sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias) are common associates in this habitat, and sea stock (Matthiola sinuata) can also be found on some of the southern dune systems in Wales.
Reference state 1 – Foredunes
The key reference state for foredunes is the availability of loose and mobile open sand that can feed into the hind-dunes and maintain the natural dynamism to create pioneer grassland and slack habitat. However, with only one or two exceptions, the dune systems in Wales are stabilising faster than they are accreting new sand, and…