The mature phase of dune slack succession is typically species-poor and dominated by an upper canopy of creeping willow (Salix repens), often >50cm high, with a dense underlayer of moss e.g. Calliergon cuspidatum and marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris). Another common form of mature dune slack vegetation is where tussocks of common sedge (Carex nigra) co-dominate with the creeping willow – as illustrated here.