Arable habitats cover about 25% of the European land area and c.30% of the most rapidly declining species in Europe are strongly associated with, or dependent on, arable habitats. Despite this, the habitat remains virtually unprotected at both the national and international levels. Arable habitats have been part of the UK landscape for more than 8000 years and there is a whole ecosystem of animals and plants that have adapted to them. However, the management changes since the 1950s have made it virtually impossible for these plants and animals to persist. Any coherent strategy for the restoration of the Welsh ecosystem cannot exclude 25% of its land area and still expect to succeed. As such, the restoration of the biodiversity of arable land should be integral to any strategy for restoring the Welsh biodiversity landscape.