Arable habitats cover about 25% of the European land area and c.30% of the most rapidly declining species in Europe are strongly associated with, or dependent on, arable habitats. Arable habitats have been part of the UK landscape for more than 8000 years and a whole ecosystem of animals and plants has adapted to them. However, the management changes since the 1950s have made it virtually impossible for these plants and animals to survive without the introduction of measures that will allow them to persist. In Wales, where arable habitats represent c.10% of the land area, the species associated with the habitat, e.g., the arable plant populations, pollinator populations, soil invertebrate populations, breeding bird populations and wintering bird populations, remain virtually unprotected at both the national and international levels, with only one SSSI designated to protect them. As such, the restoration of the biodiversity of arable land should be integral to any strategy for restoring the Welsh biodiversity landscape. Biodiversity-rich arable habitats in Wales are currently being lost at the same rate that species-rich hay meadows were lost in the mid 20th century and, as with hay meadows, it is much easier to maintain the biodiversity than restore it. Additional information on the habitats associated with arable land can be found in the sections below.