The reference state for a raised bog should comprise what is referred to as a ‘hummock and hollow’ complex, where hummocks of ‘building’ bog mosses, such as Sphagnum papilllosum and Sphagnum subnitens, and ericoids form a mosaic with pool or ‘wet hollow species, such as Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum pulchrum and Rhynchospora alba. This hummock/hollow patterning can clearly be seen in the foreground of the image above, though birch saplings are also present, suggesting that the bog surface may be drying in this area.