Eutrophication is a major problem for neutral grasslands. The recent changes in grassland management practices throughout western Europe have been devastating for biodiversity. This is as true in Wales as anywhere, with the Welsh landscape being transformed into a uniform sea of agriculturally improved green fields. The vast majority of lowland grasslands, primarily those on neutral soils, are now under intensive management, having been subjected a doubling in the use of inorganic nitrogen, a massive switch from hay to silage production, and intensive levels of grazing, particularly by sheep. As a consequence, structurally uniform swards, dominated by a small number of competitive species, have replaced diverse and species-rich hay meadows, much to the detriment of the fauna and flora in Wales.