Under-management is probably the major problem for areas of neutral grassland in the Welsh lowlands, where small field enclosures are no longer grazed and machinery access for hay cuts is difficult. The same is true of coastal grasslands formerly managed by grazing but now under-managed or abandoned. The initial indication of under-management is a gradual decline in the frequency of forbs as tall grasses, such as cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata) and false oat grass (Arrhenatherum elatius) become increasingly more dominant and pave the way for scrub encroachment.