This reference state represents mixed age / ancient stands of sessile oak in central and eastern areas Wales, where the climate is more ‘continental’ and less humid. These woods tend to host less diverse bryophyte and lichen populations than the oceanic examples of the habitat, but the less intensively grazed examples can still support an interesting avifauna. One of the more mature stands is found at Blackmill in Glamorganshire. These woods are not currently in optimal condition because, despite attempts to exclude grazing animals, small numbers of sheep access the woods and limit the opportunities for successful regeneration. However, large numbers of oak seedlings are generated in these woods, indicating that there is the potential for successful regeneration if grazing is controlled.