Some of our non-natural ecosystem components have important roles to play, not only in hosting a relatively rich fauna and flora compared to some of their natural/semi-natural counterparts, but also in the education of children. Most children in the UK live in urban environments surrounded by non-natural habitats and with limited opportunities to visit more distant semi-natural nature reserves, even if they decided that they would like to. Fo these children to grow up caring about the biodiversity of Wales, they must be given the opportunity to engage with, learn about, and value the wildlife on their doorsteps. The future of the semi-natural habitats in Wales will depend on future generations learning to value them and the non-natural parks, gardens and brownfield sites in our towns and cities have a key role to play in this. Several of these important non-natural ecosystem components are described in the sections below. However, as the habitats covered here exist as a consequence of modification, where there are different states in terms of biodiversity and cultural interest, in this section we have referred to these ‘optimal states’ and ‘suboptimal states’.