Artificial Materials

Urban areas are characterised┬áby substitution of natural covers with artificial covers, which are most of the time impervious. Impervious artificial covers affect a large number of environment processes, such as the water cycle, the carbon cycle, energy balance, biodiversity, etc. For example, bitumen surfaces block water infiltration and thus prohibit natural groundwater recharge. As a…

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Urban Vegetation

Urban vegetation is defined as the vegetation in cities. Vegetation is of major importance in urban areas as it provides a large number of ecosystem services, such as pollutants and fine particulates filtering. Urban vegetation is classified in a separate class, compared to the rest of the vegetation, as it is surrounded by impervious surfaces…

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