Many of the remaining hay meadows in Wales tend to be grass-dominated and relatively species-poor, partly as a result of phases of under-management when the more competitive grasses squeezed out the stress-tolerating herbs, partly because milder winters associated with climate change have extended the grass-growing season and given grasses an additional competitive advantage and partly perhaps because, as some research suggests, atmospheric nitrogen depositions have also favoured grass species. As a general rule, the more species-rich and herb dominated meadows need annual hay-cuts and few or no fertiliser applications.